基因数据:中美较量的新领域“亚博APP买球”2021-03-16 00:35

本文摘要:There are not many agents in the Federal Bureau of Investigation like Ed You. In a workforce that cultivates anonymity, his clean-shaven head gleams. While most of his colleagues are notoriously tight-lipped, Mr You is the chatty star of t


There are not many agents in the Federal Bureau of Investigation like Ed You. In a workforce that cultivates anonymity, his clean-shaven head gleams. While most of his colleagues are notoriously tight-lipped, Mr You is the chatty star of technology conferences such as South-by-Southwest and DEFCON.在美国官方(FBI),没许多情报员像埃德?奇(Ed You)那般。在这个期待工作员让自身看上去平平常常的办公环境中,他那剃得黑亮的秃头十分优异。虽然他的大部分朋友全是众所周知的口风等级森严,但奇终究高新科技大会上随和的大牌明星,比如西南偏南交流会(South-by-Southwest)和拉斯维加国际性黑客大会(DEFCON)。

He is also at the forefront of a potential dispute between the US and China, which could have implications for both commercial relations between the world’s two biggest economies and for the future of biomedical research.他还处于一场中国与美国潜在性争议的最前沿,这次争议有可能对这两个全世界仅次经济大国的商业服务关联及其生物医学临床研究的将来造成危害。The high profile that Mr You has adopted is part of an unusual FBI campaign to highlight the risks in America’s headlong pursuit to unlock the secrets of the human genome. A supervisory special agent in the bureau’s biological countermeasures unit, Mr You warns that the US is not protecting the genomic data used to create lucrative new medicines — but which can also be used to develop fearsome bioweapons.尤的高姿态风格是FBI一项与众不同的行動的一部分,该行動的目地是引人注意美国急匆匆谋取登陆密码人们基因组密秘的风险性。做为FBI生物防范措施单位一位部门管理管控的情报员,奇警示称作,美国没维护保养用于生产制造能够赚钱的药物的基因组数据信息,而这种数据信息有可能还被用于产品研发恐怖的化学武器。“We don’t know how much bio data has left our shores,” he says. “Our concept for biological security needs to be broadened.”“我们不告知有多少生物数据流分析来到海外,”他答复,“大家对生物学安全系数的定义务必不断发展。

”That has led him to focus on China, which the veteran lawman says is gaining access to US genomic data — the biological software that governs human organisms. In recent years, Chinese investors have purchased stakes in, or partnered with, US biomedical companies that specialise in genomics. At the same time, state-sponsored hackers believed to be Chinese have penetrated the laboratories, health insurers and hospitals where other valuable patient records reside. Mr You suggests stricter controls might be needed on what sort of health data can be transferred overseas — to China and elsewhere.这使他瞩目中国,这名阅历丰富的执法人答复,中国因此以出示美国基因组数据信息,即管理方法身体的机构的生物手机软件。最近几年,中国投资人售予专业科学研究基因组的美国生物医药学企业的股份或与他们协作。另外,据信为中国人的、由政府部门支助的网络黑客藏匿了储放在别的最重要病人纪录的试验室、身心健康车险公司和医院门诊。

奇强调,在什么身心健康数据信息能够移往到国外(中国和其他国家)层面,有可能务必加强操控。Nearly two decades after the first human genome was decoded, the field is one of the most exciting in biomedical research — and one that relies on an open network of international collaboration.在第一个人类基因组被破译近二十年后,该领域沦落生物医学临床研究最令人激动的领域之一,它仰仗扩大开放的国际交流互联网。

But it is also the latest area where national security questions — about Chinese objectives and the links between its companies and the state — are leading to calls for important sectors of the US economy to be ringfenced.但也更是在这里一领域,我国安全系数难题(相关中国的目地及其中国公司与政府部门的关联)因此以促使一些人接到维护保养美国经济发展最重要领域的呼吁。Since the 2014 decision to bar Huawei from selling into parts of the US telecoms infrastructure market, America has blocked Chinese acquisitions of a wind turbine company in Oregon, a California cloud computing firm, and the US-based division of a German semiconductor maker. The Pentagon has raised concerns about Chinese investment in artificial intelligence.自二零一四年美国限令华为公司(Huawei)转到美国电信网基础设施建设销售市场一部分领域至今,美国劝阻了中国公司并购一家俄勒冈州风速涡轮增压企业、一家美国加州的云计算公司及其一家法国半导体材料生产商在美国的子公司。美国外交部对中国在人工智能技术领域的项目投资深感忧虑。

Traditionally, the FBI’s weapons of mass destruction directorate has concentrated on preventing toxins such as Ebola or anthrax from falling into the wrong hands — and contributing to the spread of new germ weapons.FBI的规模性攻击性武器装备单位传统式上关键瞩目避免埃博拉(Ebola)或炭疽病毒等病原体落入犯罪分子手上并导致新的细菌武器扩散。Now, the bureau fears that digital data sets may prove just as lethal. The concerns about large volumes of US genetic data being scooped up help explain why a law enforcement agency is tracking the potential loss of US competitive advantage. “The economic impact is the principal near-term threat — the monetisation of large data sets,” says Mr You.现如今FBI忧虑,客观事实有可能证实,数据数据也具有某种意义的破坏力。对美国很多遗传基因数据信息因此以被肆无忌惮收集的焦虑,有利于表明为什么一家稽查人员组织要追踪美国核心竞争力的潜在性丧失。奇答复:“经济发展危害是关键的最近威协:规模性数据的所愿。

”Some observers believe the US government is right to ask questions about the implications of Chinese investment in genomics. “I’ve never seen an agency, the FBI, come out of the woodwork like this,” said Michael Wessel, a member of the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission, a congressionally-chartered advisory body. “This is a critical area that needs a lot more attention?.?.?.?It’s a real threat.”一些认真观察人员强调,美国政府部门就中国在基因组领域项目投资的危害明确指出疑虑是精确之荐。“我不曾看到过FBI突然冒出那么保证,”美国美国国会准许后开创的咨询顾问的机构——中美经济发展与安全系数评定联合会(US-China Economic and Security Review Commission)组员麦克尔?韦赛特(Michael Wessel)答复,“这一重要领域务必更为多瞩目……它是的确的威协。

”Others worry that it would be damaging for the US to put up excessive barriers to Chinese biomedical investment. Dan Rosen, founding partner at the Rhodium Group in New York, points out that China has invested more than $3.6bn in the US biotech and pharmaceuticals sector over the past five years — cash that often brings with it talented Chinese scientists. In some disciplines, such as large-scale, low-cost gene sequencing, C hina leads the US. If Chinese companies become less welcome in the US, he says, they will go elsewhere.另有一些人忧虑,美国对中国生物医学工程项目投资设定过多阻碍将是毁灭性的。纽约市荣鼎资询(Rhodium Group)开创合作伙伴丹?罗森(Dan Rosen)觉得,以往5年,中国在美国生物科技和制药业行业项目投资逾32亿美金,接踵而来的通常是优秀的中国科学家。


“I don’t think drawing a line around biotech and calling the entire industry a critical sector is going to do the trick,” said Mr Rosen. “We’re going to have to maintain the ability to look at investments case by case.”“我强调围绕生物科技划界界线并把全部领域称之为重要领域会超出目地,”罗森回应,“大家必不可少必须以后对项目投资详细情况深入分析。”The promise of genomics is a new era of precision targeted drugs that make traditional one-size-fits-all medicine look like a second world war dumb bomb. But treatments that are customised for a patient’s individual genetic make-up remain in their early stages.基因组研究将来可能带来精确靶向治疗药物的新时期,这类药品使传统式的规范化药品看起来就看上去二战时的傻子定时炸弹。但对于患者本人基因的自定化疗方案仍然正处在初期环节。

Both the US, the acknowledged global leader, and China are pursuing personalised treatments for diseases such as cancer, cystic fibrosis or Alzheimer’s. China last year unveiled a $9bn 15-year research initiative, dwarfing an Obama-era plan that earmarked $215m for the National Institutes of Health.美国(现阶段广泛认为的全世界引领者)和中国都会全力科学研究癌病、囊性纤维化和老年性痴呆症(Alzheimers)等病症的个性化放化疗。上年中国公布了一项90亿美金的十五年研究目标,令其美国奥巴马时期为美国国家卫生研究院(NIH)经费预算2.15亿美金的方案大相径庭。DNA science has leapfrogged since 2000 when the human genome was first sequenced. What once required years of work and cost billions of dollars now takes less than a week and costs just $1,000. The US is gathering genetic data from more than 1米 volunteers, so that automated lab systems can investigate how individual genes interact.自打2001年初次对人们基因组测序后,DNA科学展现出发展式发展趋势。曾一度务必花销多年時间、数十亿美元的工作中,现如今用1000美金接近一周就能拿下。

美国已经从逾一百万名青年志愿者收集遗传基因数据,便于自动化技术实验室系统能够科学研究本人遗传基因怎样相互影响。“The first problem is having access to data?.?.?.?You need a lot of data,” says Eleonore Pauwels at the Wilson Center in Washington.“第一个难题是数据……你务必许多数据,”位于美国华盛顿的威尔逊管理中心(Wilson Center)的埃莱奥诺雷?健韦尔斯(Eleonore Pauwels)回应。


Beijing’s ambitions in this area have led some Chinese companies to go on the acquisition trail — especially in the US. In January, for example, iCarbonX of Shenzhen, which aims to create personalised health treatments by combining AI with large pools of genetic data, invested more than $100m in PatientsLikeMe. The US company says it is the world’s largest personalised health network with more than 500,000 individuals sharing their medical details. PatientsLikeMe, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, says that its data are anonymised and retained on US-based servers.北京市层面在该行业的欲望促使一些中国公司踏入企业并购之途——尤其是在美国。比如,一月深圳市的碳云智能(iCarbonX,目地把人工智能技术和大中型遗传基因数据库结合一起以打造人性化身心健康化疗方案)向PatientsLikeMe项目投资逾1亿美元。这个美国企业自称全世界仅次的人性化健康网,逾五十万人在这里共享资源了诊疗关键点。

位于密苏里州坎布里奇的PatientsLikeMe回应,其数据是电子邮箱的,储放在美国地区的网络服务器。That kind of data — stored in 100 gigabyte to 1 terabyte digital files — could be used to develop new drugs. Laboratories gather enormous numbers of such files, then combine them with detailed demographic, diet, health and lifestyle records. Supercomputers search for patterns, identifying genetic malfunctions and suggesting new remedies.这种数据——存储在100 GB到1TB的文档内——能够作为产品研发新的药品。

试验室收集大量该类数据,以后把他们与详细的人口数据、饮食结构、身心健康和生活习惯等纪录数据融合。高性能计算机寻找规律性,识别遗传基因缺少并获得新的放化疗提议。The same data sets can, however, be used to develop bioweapons. The FBI, which first raised its biomedicine concerns in late 2014, has not officially offered any policy recommendations. Mr You, who has a masters degree in biochemistry and molecular biology, suggests tightening regulations on health records to make it harder to transfer them overseas.殊不知,某种意义的数据集还可以作为产品研发生物武器。


Although most of the Trump administration’s top science jobs are vacant, Mr You insists the FBI’s concerns are “starting to get more traction” inside government.虽然美国政府在尖端科技的大部分高級岗位现阶段仍正处在遗缺,但奇果断强调FBI的顾虑早就刚开始在政府部门内“造成更高危害”。Outside Washington, views are mixed. “I don’t think he’s an alarmist. He’s raising some questions that need to be asked and answered,” says Ben Shobert, senior associate at the National Bureau of Asian Research.政府部门以外,大家的见解不一。“我不会强调他是自相矛盾。

他明确提出了一些务必明确提出和问的难题,”美国我国亚洲地区研究局(National Bureau of Asian Research)高級研究者本?肖伯特(Ben Shobert)回应。But Bernard Munos, senior fellow at the Milken Institute’s FasterCures, says the bureau’s concerns are exaggerated. “What they can steal from us is data,” he says of competitors. “Data are a necessary ingredient, but not sufficient. You need bright people who are going to extract knowledge from that data and from that knowledge imagine potential new treatments. At the moment, the capabilities of the Chinese to do that are limited.”但麦肯研究所(Milken Institute) FasterCures管理中心的高級研究者伯纳德?穆尼奥斯(Bernard Munos)称作,FBI的焦虑搞笑了。“她们能从大家这儿盗走的是数据,”他那样讲到竞争者,“数据是必备条件,但并不是充要条件。

你务必聪明的人从数据中提纯科学专业知识,再次依据科学专业知识构想有可能的疗法。如今,中国人搭建这一点的工作能力受到限制。”FBI officials recognise that science is a global endeavour that would wither if confined within national borders.FBI高官意识到,科学是一项全世界期待,假如局限性在国境线内,此项期待将不容易困苦。The US Human Geno me Project, for instance, would have taken far longer without help from the UK, Germany, France, Japan and China. And roughly 40 per cent of the biomedical scientists in the US hail from China or India, according to Mr Munos.比如,假如没美国、法国、荷兰、日本国和中国的帮助,美国人类基因组方案(Human Genome Project)不容易花销更为长期。

穆尼奥斯回应,美国大概40%的生物医学工程生物学家来源于中国或印尼。“US biomedical research could hardly function today without this contingent of people,” he says. “The collaboration is an essential part.”“假如没这些人,美国生物医学工程科学研究今日难以运行,”他回应,“协作是不可或缺的一部分。

”That’s why cross-border deals so far have faced few objections. In 2013, the US government’s committee on foreign investment (Cfius) approved BGI-Shenzhen’s purchase of Complete Genomics in California, which has sequenced more than 20,000 human genomes.这就是目前为止跨境电商企业并购彻底没遭赞同的缘故。二零一三年,美国政府部门外资注册委员会(Cfius)准许后了深圳市深圳华大基因(BGI-Shenzhen)企业并购位于美国加州的的初始基因公司(Complete Genomics)。


后面一种对高达两万个人类基因组进行了转录组测序。Today such a deal might be rejected, says Mr Wessel, a member of the US-China Commission. One reason is a lack of reciprocity. Even as Chinese groups take stakes in US biomedical companies, Chinese regulations prevent foreign companies from taking genetic data out of China, according to Mr Shobert.美中经济发展与安全系数评定委员会组员韦赛特回应,现如今那样的买卖有可能遭驳回申诉。


Cfius also does not track most foreign loans, non-controlling investments of less than 10 per cent — such as the iCarbonX deal — or stakes in start-ups.美国外资注册委员会都不跟踪绝大多数的国外借款、股权匮乏10%的非有限责任公司性项目投资——例如碳云智能的企业并购——或对初创公司的控股股东。“That’s what’s scaring the crap out of the FBI,” says Mr Rosen. “That the most early-stage interesting stuff, the stuff happening in garages, could get sort of infiltrated with Chinese money.”“最前期的有趣的物品,在车库里科学研究的物品,有可能被中国的资产渗透到,这可把FBI看见了,”罗森回应。In Congress, Senator John Cornyn, a member of the Republican leadership, plans to introduce legislation to expand government reviews of foreign investments to include joint ventures and other technology company acquisitions. “The status quo on investment from China is simply unsustainable,” Mr Cornyn said at a June Council on Foreign Relations event.在美国国会,美国民主党领导阶层组员、众议员罗伯特?康宁(John Cornyn)方案引入法律法规,将政府部门核查外资注册的范畴不断发展到中外合资企业和别的技术性企业并购。“中国项目投资的现况是不能不断的,”康宁在美国双边关系委员会(Council on Foreign Relations) 6月一次主题活动中回应。

Cross-border deals are not the only risks to US genetic data. The healthcare industry is notoriously vulnerable to cyber attacks. Though most public attention to date has centred on identity theft or pilfered credit card details, patient medical records are even more valuable, says Mr You. Some recent hacks involved “actual penetration and acquisition of clinical data”, he told the US-China commission in March.跨境电商企业并购并不是美国遗传基因数据信息应对的唯一风险性。医疗器械行业众所周知的更非常容易遭受黑客攻击。奇回应,虽然目前为止大部分群众瞩目都集中化于在真实身份仿冒或透支卡信息失窃上,但患者诊疗纪录通常更非常容易被窃取。

他三月向美中经济发展与安全系数评定委员会回应,近期一些网络黑客恶性事件涉及“的确渗透到和出示临床数据”。In December, hackers infiltrated Quest Diagnostics, which boasts the world’s largest clinical lab database, and gained access to 34,000 patient records, including laboratory results.上年十二月,网络黑客藏匿探索临床医学企业(Quest Diagnostics)得到 了3.4万份患者纪录,在其中还包含试验室成效。该企业自诩具有全球仅次的临床医学试验室数据库查询。

Although there is no evidence of foreign involvement in that episode, hackers who US officials believe were operating on behalf of the Chinese government broke into Anthem’s networks in 2014 and spent a year rummaging through records of 78.8米 customers, California regulators said in announcing a January settlement with the insurer.虽然没直接证据强调国外阵营参与本次恶性事件,但美国加州的监督机构在一月宣布与保险商Anthem达成共识的让步计划方案时回应,美国高官强调意味着中国政府部门的网络黑客于二零一四年攻入了Anthem的互联网,而且花上了一年的時间翻边了7880万顾客的纪录。“The healthcare industry in general is far less secure than many other industries and sectors out there. So the ability for a determined actor to get access to that type of information is certainly feasible if they’re motivated to do so,” says Charles Carmakal, vice-president at Mandiant, a cyber security company. “We just haven’t seen it yet.”“整体上,保健医疗领域近没别的许多领域和单位安全系数。因而,假如下决心的共创文明城市有驱动力得话,她们的工作能力认可不能获得该类信息,”网络信息安全企业曼迪昂特(Mandiant)的高级副总裁克利夫?卡玛梅帝(Charles Carmakal)回应,“大家仅仅都还没遇到而已。

”Meanwhile, national security risks loom. The US government has long invested in defences against about 60 pathogens and 10 toxins that pose a “severe” health risk, including the Ebola virus, the H1N1 flu virus and ricin.此外,我国安全系数风险性隐约可见。美国政府部门长线投资于抵御不容易造成 “相当严重”身心健康风险性的大概60种病原菌和10种内毒素的方式,还包含埃博拉病毒、H1N1感冒病毒和蓖麻毒素等。But advances such as gene editing and next-generation DNA sequencing allow scientists to weaponise new viruses, perhaps including custom pathogens engineered to overcome existing immunities or to be impervious to current drugs. Some experts warn of bioweapons engineered to kill specific populations or even individuals.但基因编辑技术和新一代DNA测序等技术性转型促使生物学家能够把新型病毒变成武器装备,或许还包含用自定病原菌攻占目前人体免疫系统或抵御目前药品的危害。

一些权威专家对用于干掉特殊群体、乃至本人的生物武器收到了警示。Last year, James Clapper, director of national intelligence, included gene editing aimed at producing new biological weapons as among the nation’s top security threats. “The risks are real,” a White House scientific advisory panel said in November, “and will only grow as biotechnology becomes more sophisticated in the years ahead.”上年,国家资源主管勒布朗詹姆斯?克拉珀(James Clapper)把目地生产制造新的生物武器的基因编辑技术列入国家仅次安全系数威协。

“风险性是切切实实的,”美国白宫一个科学咨询顾问工作组上年十一月回应,“并且不容易伴随着将来两年生物科技日渐简易而更为危险因素。”Insider threat: Scientist accused of stealing trade secrets內部威协:科学家被测盗取领域机密With a PhD in biological chemistry and four patents to her name, Yu Xue was “one of the top protein biochemists in the world”, prosecutors said when they charged her with stealing trade secrets from her employer.具有细胞生物学博士研究生和4项专利权的薛瑜(Yu Xue)是“全球最顶尖的蛋白微生物科学家之一”,检查官在控告薛瑜从其任职企业盗取领域机密时回应。